**The Fulcrum of the Cosmos**

In the early years of the 20^{th} century Albert Einstein produced the Special Theory of Relativity and in it introduced one of the most important and profound insights into the nature of physical reality yet grasped by a human being – that the universe is not a singular, unified entity. This insight was not explicitly stated by Einstein but rather it was woven into Special Relativity’s very fabric. In SR there is no universal reference frame, therefore the model does not describe a universe that can be treated as a singular, unified entity. Instead it describes a universe consisting of only locally unified entities.This concept was not very popular however and was effectively abandoned within a decade though scientists of the academy continue to pay it lip service.

With the arrival of the General Theory of Relativity mathematicians, Einstein among them, began applying the field equations of GR to the “universe”, assuming rather casually that they could treat the cosmos as a singular, unified entity. In doing so, of course, their models inherently foisted a universal reference frame onto the cosmos. All the physically ludicrous features of the standard model of modern cosmology can be traced to this fundamental error.

The Island Universe Theory explicitly states that all reference frames are local and an overarching universal reference frame cannot be said to exist, in the sense of referring to any real, physical entity. In and of itself this is enough to dispense with the notion of an expanding universe with a singular origin; the ludicrous inflation theory is vanquished; expanding space disappears and so does dark energy. Not bad for simply dropping a simplistic and scientifically baseless assumption.

With the imaginary unified, singular universe gone there is an added bonus that certain well known aspects of physical reality come into sharper focus. That matter is three dimensional and material processes take place sequentially is quite widely known. Perhaps not as well known but equally true is the fact that electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is four dimensional and has no time dimension.

It can be said then that the reference frame of any material object has three spatial dimensions and 3D observers perceive motion and change against the 4D background of EMR. We human 3D observers have conceptualized this motion and change against the 4D background as ‘time’. The reference frame of EMR has four spatial dimensions and no time dimension. (Mathematicians describe this state by saying that EMR travels on a null geodesic.) So matter is time-bound and electromagnetic energy is timeless. The universe consists of matter and electromagnetic energy, so the universe has both timeless and time-bound aspects and needs both 3 and 4-dimensional spatial reference frames to properly describe it.

Our telescopic instruments have shown us a vast cosmos of indeterminate extent. In every direction we look, out as far as we can see, we observe a great many galaxies. All of those galaxies are radiating electromagnetic energy omnidirectionally. This means that the cosmos is suffused with electromagnetic energy. Everywhere there is no matter there is omnidirectionally sourced electromagnetic energy. Electromagnetic energy is created by three dimensional material processes. Stars and galaxies emit EMR omnidirectionally and absorb EMR from all directions.

The omnidirectional inflow of EMR onto material objects, which appear as holes in the four dimensional realm of EMR, is the cause of the phenomenon commonly referred to as inertia. Matter functions as both a drain and an emitter of EMR on the galactic scale. A proper model of this system can probably be built by analogy to the fluid dynamics of drains and fountains.

Gravitational attraction is a related phenomenon. When two material bodies are in relatively close proximity there is a shadow area surrounding the imaginary line that connects their centers. As spherical wavefronts of EMR from distant sources traverse that shadow area they are shortened at either end by the drain effect of the material bodies. Since EMR is the only thing that separates the two bodies (see here) the distance between them is shortened and the bodies appear attracted to each other. Gravity, then, is not a long distance force but a result of the combined local drain effect of each gravitating body.

The following intriguing relationship supports the concept of gravity as being an essentially electromagnetic phenomenon:

where G is the gravitational constant, c is the defined speed of light and 4/3 x 10‾¹² is the dimensional ratio properly scaled and assigned appropriate units.

So, recognizing the significance of the 4/3 dimensional ratio results in a clear and concise physical explanation of both gravity and inertia. It dispenses with much of the empirically baseless features of the Standard Model of Cosmology. It illuminates the, until now, mysterious nature of the double slit experiment and thus opens the possibility of a rational and coherent explanation for all quantum phenomenon. And it relates the gravitational constant to the speed of light. It will not, however, wash your car or shine your shoes.

Hubble Deep Field courtesy NASA, ESA, H. Teplitz and M. Rafelski (IPAC/Caltech), A. Koekemoer (STScI), R. Windhorst (Arizona State University), and Z. Levay (STScI)