A Cosmology for the 21st Century
In criticizing the standard cosmological model, a common rejoinder of the model’s defenders is to demand of the critic an alternative cosmological model. In a discussion of the standard model’s shortcomings, of course, this is nothing but a transparent attempt to change the subject. As an argumentative technique it is a sign of desperation.
Setting aside the discussion of the standard model’s failures however, it is fair to ask what an alternative model might look like. Herein then is an attempt to sketch an outline of such a cosmology in qualitative terms. The purpose of insisting on a qualitative model as a first approximation of this cosmology is simply to avoid the flights of mathematical fantasy that are one of the main causes of the current model’s failures. The fundamental requirement of this new cosmology, the Open Source Model, is that all of its physical features and relationships must rest firmly on observations and measurements, which is to say that the physical structure implied by the model must be subject to empirical verification. The Open Source Model is not so much a fixed model as an approach to modeling the cosmos that insists on the primacy of the scientific method. Empiricism is at the heart of the scientific method.
At the core of the Open Source Model is the Island Universe Theory which in turn rests on an extension of Relativity Theory and on the astronomer Halton Arp’s observations of high redshift quasars in close proximity to and apparent interaction with low redshift active galaxies. In the IUT, galaxies are the fundamental unit of creation across the cosmos. Unlike the Big Bang, the singular creation event of the standard model, creation events are distributed widely and non-simultaneously in the IUT. The cosmos of the IUT consists of an ongoing process of multiple, partially overlapping, creation events. Quasars, in this model, are nascent galaxies born of active galaxies.
The Open Source Model of the Universe requires a mechanism to account for the cosmological redshift. That mechanism is provided by employing standard light cone analysis to the light emitted by galaxies and augmenting that analysis with the well-known phenomena of entanglement and standard gravitational theory. This results in a redshift-distance relationship caused by a relativistic gravitational effect on an expanding spherical wavefront of light. The term relativistic in this context refers to the fact that the gravitational effect on the wavefront is relative only to that expanding spherical wavefront.
In the OSM then we consider an expanding spherical wavefront of emitted light surrounding a galaxy. At a point close to its origin we can calculate a gravitational redshift for that wavefront using the standard General Relativity equation. We can also consider that all of the photons that comprise this spherical wavefront are entangled via the same mechanism that underlies all entanglement phenomena and essentially constitute a simultaneity. It follows then that any number of years after the original calculation, say one billion, another calculation can be made for the redshift of the same expanding spherical wavefront, now 1 billion light-years in radius and employing the mass density of the enclosed sphere. The result is a redshift correlated with distance.
At large distances the results so calculated will not agree with observation but not because the general methodology employed is wrong. It is rather that the GR equation being employed does not work on the scale at which it is being used. This is a well known problem that has been papered over with talk of dark matter and dark energy. The fact is General Relativity simply does not work on large cosmological scales. For the purposes of this paper however we can set the GR problem aside and state that it has been established that the OSM using light cone analysis, entanglement and some corrected form of large scale gravity, can account for a cosmological redshift without invoking a universal expansion.
The same line of reasoning also leads directly to an explanation of the cosmic microwave background radiation. As each successive, expanding, spherical wavefront of light reaches its minimal energy state, they collectively form the equivalent of a blackbody shell around the source galaxy that reradiates the absorbed energy at the observed 2.7K temperature.
In the OSM the fundamental unit of the cosmos is the galaxy. All galaxies are at the center of their individual observable universes which is to say that every galaxy is possessed of its own individual reference frame. This is in keeping with a fundamental feature of basic relativity theory, the absence of a universal reference frame.
Upon careful reflection it is obvious that in the OSM the extent of the field of galaxies is unknowable. Consider a distant galaxy at the edge of our observable universe. An observer on that distant galaxy would see our galaxy at the edge of its observable universe. Here we make a simple but reasonable assumption that the observable universe of the distant observer is much like our own, meaning that the observer could turn its gaze 180° and find another galaxy at the opposite edge of its observable universe. That third galaxy would lie far beyond the outer edge of our observable universe and an observer there would have an even more distant view outward from our direction. So the extent of the field of galaxies in the OSM is inherently unknowable as is the extent of the four dimensional sea of timeless electromagnetic radiation within which the galaxies play out their time-bound three dimensional lives.
The recognition of the four/three dimensional differential is fundamental to the OSM. In the theory gravity is not a force but an effect of that 4/3 differential. Three dimensional matter represents a hole in the four dimensional dis-continuum of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that permeates the cosmos everywhere there is no matter (mass). Here the term dis-continuum is used in recognition of the fact that EMR is discrete not continuous and to differentiate it from the mathematician’s spacetime continuum. EMR in this conception falls into the dimensional hole presented by matter which consequently curves nearby light in the manner observed. This gravitational effect is local to the material object and short range. It is not a force field.
The apparent gravitational ‘force” between two objects in relative proximity is simply the cumulative effect of their individual local absorption of the EMR that separates them. The absence of ‘space’ in this analysis is simply in keeping with empirical reality. The existence of an empty ‘space’ container in which matter and energy exist has no empirical foundation and therefore has no place in scientific theory. What separates material objects in the cosmos is at minimum, always and everywhere EMR. This is neither a hypothesis nor conjecture, but an assertion of observational fact.
In a similar vein it can be stated that there is no empirical evidence for the existence of a ‘time’ independent of the material processes by which we measure it. That is to say that ‘time’ is a characteristic of the sequential nature of material processes which are themselves a consequence of the three dimensional nature of matter. ‘Time’ as a free-standing entity is a concept, like ‘space’, that lacks any empirical evidence to support it.
The cosmos of the OSM then consists of two fundamental entities, matter and electromagnetic energy. Matter may be considered a distinct form of bound electromagnetic energy, and electromagnetic energy may be considered a distinct form of un-bound matter. Neither view is complete in itself; only both views, held equally, presents an accurate representation of empirical reality. This leads to an awareness that our understanding of the fundamental physical processes of the cosmos is deficient. We have some knowledge of the matter to EMR transformation but no real grasp of the process by which matter is generated from EMR except for a strained mathematical concept that something came from nothing in a myth-like creation event far back in an inaccessible and unobservable past. The OSM presents fertile ground for observational research in this area. The quasar–active galaxy relationship needs to be fully investigated, with the blinders of big bang orthodoxy discarded in favor of the observational evidence.
There are other avenues for actual physical research suggested by the OSM. The tired, over-stretched, laboratory derived concept of entropy needs to be set aside in cosmology since there are no closed systems in the cosmos. What is needed is a robust theory of thermodynamic reciprocity in which systems sequentially wind-up and then wind-down. Entropy, as currently conceived, is a half-baked, half-loaf of reality. The active galaxy –quasar relationship and the existence of living things suggests that the underlying dynamic may be scale-invariant and can possibly be generalized.
As already suggested gravity has to be reconceived as a direct interaction between three-dimensional matter and four-dimensional EMR. Matter represents a hole or dimensional vacuum to the EMR that surrounds it and into which the EMR preferentially ‘falls’. When all the EMR sources surrounding a material object are at great distances there is an omni-directional inflow of EMR into the matter ‘hole’ which is the source of a material object’s inertia.
When two material objects are in close proximity there is a shadow area between them. When EMR traverses that area as part of an expanding spherical wavefront the section within the shadow area is truncated at both ends by direct absorption of the two masses and also shortened as parts of the wavefront in close proximity to both masses are drawn inward. Summed over all the incoming wavefronts within the shadow, this is what constitutes gravitational attraction – a shortening of the distance between the two masses.
For the most part EMR is thought of and studied as a linear phenomenon – as being composed of light rays. The behavior of EMR as an omnidirectionally expanding wavefront is a neglected area of physics that is ripe for experimental and theoretical exploration.
The Open Source Model then can account for the cosmological redshift, the cosmic microwave background radiation, even gravity, without venturing beyond the realm of empirically verifiable entities and events. It does, of course, need to be quantified. Trivially this is certainly doable because anything can be quantified as long as your quantitative model is not constrained by the limitations of physical reality. The Open Source Model does have just such a requirement however. Any proposed quantification cannot invoke events that cannot be observed or entities that cannot be detected. All proposed features of the quant model must be empirically verifiable.
This brings us to the reason why the Open Source Model of the Universe is so named. Quantification of the model is hereby opened to all interested parties. The only requirements are that no purely mathematical procedures be invoked that do not have a physical correlate and that all hypotheses and conjectures be empirically verifiable. Both individual effort and teamwork are encouraged. The model is to be built upon physics; physics shall not be required to conform to the model. Interested parties should be aware that for the foreseeable future no funding of any sort is likely to be available for any efforts in this area.